Managing Innovative Thinking + Design

Monday, December 25, 2006

Websites & Readings for Design Researchers

Ten Top Websites for Researchers

As recommended by Darren Newbury (editor), The Research Training Initiative, Birmingham Institute of Art & Design
The UK Grad Programme
This site has a wealth of material on research skills, the development of research careers and so on. It is of use to research students and supervisors.
The United Kingdom National Academic Mailing List Service, JISCmail is the hosting service for electronic discussion lists across all subject areas. The website contains information on the many subject based lists and how to join them.
Kovacs Directory of Scholarly and Professional E-Conferences
An international database of professional and academic electronic discussion lists which can be searched by keyword.
National Postgraduate Committee
The website for the United Kingdom organisation for postgraduate students. The site contains useful information for students, discussion on postgraduate issues, as well as links to further resources and equivalent organisations in other countries.
Resource Discovery Network
This is an extensive catalogue of Internet resources for researchers across a wide range of subject areas. Includes online training modules in using the web as a research resource.
BUBL Information Service
This is very useful general information resource covering all academic subject areas.
The British Library
Includes a link to the online British Library Public Catalogue.
Only available to students based in UK institutions, this site allows you to set up an email alerting service for particular journals or user-defined keywords.
NISS: Information for Education
Very useful general information site, which links to the home pages and library catalogues of all higher education institutions in the UK. The sites also have information on higher education and links to web-based resources across the world.
First choice for an Internet search engine.The Internet is now so large and changes so rapidly that it is simply impossible to catalogue its contents across the art, design and media subject range.
Some library sites do a good job of listing subject-based resources (see for example the 'i page' at the London Institute, but even these will only cover a proportion of what is available. It is important for researchers themselves to learn to search the Internet effectively, and begin building up their own sets of useful websites based on their specific research interests.

Recommended Reading

Bauer, M.W. & Gaskell, G. (Eds.) (2000) Qualitative Researching with Text, Image and Sound: a practical handbook, Sage.
Biggs, M. (2000). ‘Foundations of practice-based research: proceedings of the research into practice conference’ [online]. Working Papers in Art and Design Volume 1. Available from URL:
Bohm, D. (1987), Unfolding Meaning: A Weekend of Dialogue with David Bohm, Routledge.
Booth, W. Colomb, G. and Williams, J. (1995) The Craft of Research, University of Chicago Press.
Braun, T. (2004) The Philosophy of Branding: Great philosophers think brands, Kogan Page
Brew, A., (2001), The Nature of Research. Inquiry in Academic Contexts, Routledge Falmer Research.
Brewer, J., Hunter, A. (1989) Multimethod Research: a synthesis of styles, Sage.
Brockbank, A. & McGill, I., (1998),‘Reflection and Reflective Practice’, in: Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education, Open University Press, 700-88.
Brown, M. F. (1998) ‘Can culture be copyrighted?’ Current Anthropology, 39(2) 193-206.
Clark, K. (2004) Brandscendence: Three essential elements of enduring brands, Dearborn Trade Publishing
Crosby, J. V. (2000) Cycles, Trends & Turning Points, NTC Publishing Group
Cross, N. (ed.) (1984), Developments in Design Methodology. John Wiley & Sons.
Cross, N. (2001), ‘Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline Versus Design Science’, in: Design Issues Vol. 17, No.3.
Danvers, J.(1995), ‘The Knowing Body: Art as an Integrative System of Knowledge’, in: Journal for Art and Design Education, 14 (3), 289-97.
Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (2003) The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues (2nd edition). Sage (Chapters 1, 6 and Part III) Lincoln Y.S. and Guba E.G. (2003).
Douglas, A. and Scopa, K. (2000) ‘Research through Practice: Positioning the Practitioner as Researcher’ in: Research into Practice, July 1999 –
Druckrey, T. (ed) (1996) Electronic Culture, Aperture.
Durling, D. (2002). ‘Discourses on research and the PhD in design’, in: Quality Assurance in Education, 10(2), 79-85.
Emmison, M. and Smith P. (2000), Researching the Visual: Images, Objects, Contexts and Interactions in Social and Cultural Inquiry, Sage
Evamy, M. (2003) World Without Words, Watson Guptill
Feyerabend, P. (1987), ‘Creativity’ and ‘Progress in Philosophy, the Sciences and the Arts’, in: Farewell to Reason. Verso.
Frayling, C.(1993), ‘Research in Art and Design’, in: Royal College of Art Research Papers 1.
Frisch, M. (1990) A Shared Authority: Essays on the Craft and Meaning of Oral and Public History, Albany, State University of New York Press.
Gell, A.(1998) ‘Art and Agency: an anthropological theory’, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gladwell, M. (2004) Blink: The power of thinking without thinking
Gobé, M. (2001) Emotional Branding: The new paradigm for connecting brands to people, Allworth Press
Gray, C. (1995) Developing a Research Procedures Programme for Artists and Designers. Aberdeen: Centre for Research into Art and Design, Robert Gordon University.
Gray, C. and Malins, J. (1999) ‘The digital thesis: recent developments in practice-based PhD research in art and design’, in: Digital Creativity, 10 (1), 18-28.
Gray, C. and Pirie, I. (1995) ‘‘Artistic’ research procedure: research at the edge of chaos?’, in: Design Interfaces Conference, vol.3. Salford: The European Academy of Design, University of Salford.
Gray, C. and Malins, J. (2004) ‘Visualising Research’, Ashgate.
Graves, D. (2002), ‘Art as a Rational Activity’, in: Journal of Aesthetic Education, 36 (4), 1-14.
Grele, R. (ed.) (1985) Envelopes of Sound: the Art of Oral History, Chicago, Precedent, second edition.
Hamlyn, N. (2003) Film Art Phenomena, British Film Institute.
Harrild, A.; Frayling, C.; Painter, C. and Woodham, J. (1998), Transcript of Research Seminar on Practice-Based Doctorates in Creative and Performing Arts and Design, Surrey Institute of Art and Design.
Hill, D. (2003) Body of Truth, John Wiley & Sons.
Hill, P. (1995), ‘Is there a Doctor in the Art School?’, in: Arts Monthly Australia.
Hill, S. (2002) 60 Trends in 60 Minutes, John Wiley & Sons.
Jeamsinkul, C and Sawasdichai, N. (2002), ‘Perspectives on Building a Foundation for Design Research: Annotated Principles and Methods of Design Research List’. In: Visible Language, 2 (36) Helmer Poggenpohl.
Jones, J.C.(1992), Design Methods; Seeds of Human Futures, John Wiley & Sons.
Kazmierczak, E.T.(2003), ‘Design as Meaning Making: From Making Things to the Design of Thinking’, in: Design Issues 19(2).
Kiley, D. (2004) Driven: Inside BMW, John Wiley & Sons.
Kroes, P. (2002), ‘Design methodology and the nature of technical artefacts’, in: Design Studies 23.
Lamb, D. (1983), Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Avebury.
Lawson, B. (1997), How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified, London: Architectural Press, 3rd edition.
Lopiano-Misdom, J. and De Luca, J. (1998) Street Trends, Harper Business
McLeod, K. (c2000), ‘What would falsify an art practice? Research Degrees in Fine Art’, in: Broadside, University of Central England.
Marshall, S. (2006) Your PhD Companion, How to Books.
Mason, J. (2001), Researching your Own Practice: The Discipline of Noticing, Routledge Falmer.
Newbury, D. (1996), ‘Designing and Managing a Research Project’, in: Birmingham: The Research Training Initiative, University of Central England.
Newbury, D. (1996), ‘Knowledge and research in art and design’ in: Design Studies, 17(2), 215-219.
Newbury, D. (1996), ‘Research Perspectives in Art and Design’ in: Birmingham: The Research Training Initiative, University of Central England.
Olins, W. (2003) On Brand, Thames & Hudson.
Oxman, R.(2004), ‘Think-Maps: Teaching design thinking in design education’ in: Design Studies 25.
Perks R. and Thompson, P. (eds), (1998) The Oral History Reader, London, Routledge.
Phillips, E. (2005) How to Get a PhD: A Handbook for Students and Their Supervisors, Study Skills.
Polanyi, M. (1983), Tacit Dimension, Peter Smith.
Rieser, M. and Zapp, A. (eds.) (2002) New Screen Media, British Film Institute.
Riezebos, R. (2003) Brand Management: A theoretical and practical approach, FT Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2003), Real World Research: a resource for social scientists and practitioner researchers, Blackwell.
Rose, G. (2001), Visual Methodologies, Sage.
Roth, S. (1999), ‘The State of Design Research’ in: Design Issues 2 (2).
Rugg, G. (2004) The Unwritten Rules of Phd Research, Open University Press.Scheurich, J.J. (1997) ‘The Masks of Validity: A Deconstructive Investigation’ in: Research Method in the Postmodern, Routledge Falmer.
Schon, D. (1985), The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action, Arena.
Schon, D. (1990), Educating the Reflective Practitioner, Jossey Bass Willey.
Seago, A. (1995). ‘Research methods for MPhil and PhD students in art and design: contrasts and conflicts’ in: Royal College of Art Research Papers 1 (3), London: Royal College of Art.
Seago, A. and Dunne, A. (1999), ‘New Methodologies in Art and Design Research: The Object as Discourse’ in: Design Studies 15 (2).
Strandman, P. Ed. (1998), No Guru, No Method? Discussions on Art and Design Research. Helsinki: University of Art and Design Helsinki UIAH.
Stanley, N. (1998) Being ourselves for you: the global display of cultures. London: Middlesex University Press.
Tufte, E. (1997), Visual Explanations, Graphics Press.
von Stamm, B. (2002) The Innovation Wave: Addressing Future Challenges, John Wiley & Sons
Walliman, N. (2005) Your Research Project: A Step-by-Step Guide for the First-Time Researcher, Sage Publications.
Weibel, P and Shaw, J. (eds) (2003) Future Cinema – The Cinematic Imaginary After Film, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Weisberg, R.(1999), ‘Creativity and Knowledge: a Challenge to Theories’, in: Stemberg, R., ed., Handbook of Creativity, Cambridge University Press, 226-50.
Weth, von der, R. (1999), ‘Design Instinct? – the development of individual strategies’ in: Design Studies 20.
Williams, R. (1965), ‘The Creative Mind’, in: The Long Revolution, Penguin, 19-56.
Winter, R., Griffiths, M. and Green, K. (2000), ‘The ‘academic’ qualities of practice: what are the criteria for a practice-based PhD?’ in: Studies in Higher Education, 25(1): 25-37.
Wisker, G. (2001), The Postgraduate Research Handbook, Palgrave.
Young, J. (2001), Art and Knowledge, Routledge.
Zeisel, J. (1984), Inquiry by Design, Cambridge University Press.

For further reading suggestions go to:

Sunday, December 24, 2006

DRS Proceedings 2000

Doctoral Education in Design: Foundations for the Future

DRS Proceedings 2000

Session 1: Philosophies and theories of designThe character and epistemology of a field define its parameters. Exploring these issues will be a central issue of the next decade for doctoral education in design and for design research. We must articulate a philosophy of design that considers the general principles under which the phenomena of design are comprehended, explained, and structured. Session 1 addressed the central challenges in the philosophy of science and theory development for the field of design.

Design knowledge: context, content and continuity
Ken Friedman
Towards a poetics of designing
Keith Russell
Design as being in service
Harold Nelson & Erik Stolterman
Design and existential meaning
Jan Verwijnen
A philosophical home for design
Charles Owen
A meta-theoretical basis for design theory
Terence Love
Propositions of human-centeredness: A philosophy for design
Klaus Krippendorff
An interpretive-contextual framework for research in and through design
Jill Franz
Meanwhile, back on the ranch…
Cal Swann
The foundations of interaction design: Philosophy and the ecology of design culture
Richard Buchanan
Design and evolution
John Broadbent & Steve Harfield
Design as a discipline
Nigel Cross
Toward a philosophy of science for design research. An heuristic approach
Johan Olaisen & Ken Friedman
How design creates value: some elements of a research program
Tore Kristensen
Designing in a situated domain. Design competence as the result of context-specific sociotechnical relationships. The “Sistema Design Italia” case
Stefano Maffei & Francesco Zurlo
On reason and habit: An Aristotelian approach to design theory
Susan Stewart

Session 2: Foundations and methods of design researchThere is no single set of research methods for design research. A rich diversity of methods has been developed for the field of design and adapted from other fields with new methods under development. We have begun to examine the foundations of these methods for suitability and rigour. The simultaneous location of design research within natural science, social science, technology and the humanities poses unique challenges to the issue of method. Session 2 examined these issues and highlighted areas of strength and weakness in current method and directions for fruitful application.

Constructing knowledge of design, part 1: Understanding concepts in design research
Keiichi Sato
Constructing knowledge of design, part 2: Questions – an approach to design research
Sharon Helmer Poggenpohl
Research methods for design science research
John S Gero
The integrated conglomerate approach: A suggestion for a generic model of design research
Birger Sevaldson
Patterns of visual perception
Norman Sheehan
Pedagogy with primates: Exploring the craft of fieldwork and user-centered design through the study of animals and their environments
Christena Nippert-Eng
Some experiences in creating the foundation and methods of design research in Finland
Pirkko Anttila
Sokalled language theory: Lessons for the philosophy of science from urban design?
Marion Roberts & Fergus Carnegie
On method: the problem of objectivity
Michael A R Biggs
Knowledge of context and its benefits for design professions
Stephen Awoniyi
Researching designing: Cycles of design research
Robert Jerrard
Theoretical perspectives, design research and the PhD thesis
Terence Love
Complexity, uncertainty, adaptability: Reflections around design research
Silvia Pizzocaro

Session 3: Form and structure for the doctorate in designA doctorate in design may be awarded in several subject disciplines and involve a range of doctoral traditions. A central focus in the conference will be the Ph.D. Despite differences, there seems to be a common form to the Ph.D. project based on a written thesis with an oral defence. While issues in design research and doctoral traditions vary from field to field, there is strong consensus on issues of form and structure. Session 3 attempted to develop an international consensus statement on appropriate forms of Ph.D. study that will be useful at the local level while helping to develop the field across national boundaries. In addition to the Ph.D., the session also considered other forms of the doctorate. The session also attempted to establish international guidelines helpful to directors of doctoral programs and doctoral supervisors. Finally, the session considered issues of programme and department structure appropriate to the integrative and interdisciplinary nature of doctoral programmes in design.

A background to doctoral awards
Bruce Archer
Theoretical perspectives in the PhD thesis: How many?
Terence Love
Art and technology: A new unit?
Pelle Ehn & Carl Henrik Svenstedt
New structures of design education as basis for a doctoral thesis in design
Ralph Bruder
The development of research education and training in art and design: A personal view
Darren Newbury
Journeymen and salarymen; Design doctorates in Japan
John P. Shackleton & Kazuo Sugiyama
Not everything made of steel is a battleship
John Langrish
A turning point: The very first PhD program in industrial design in Taiwan
Kuohsiang Chen
Design in the UK: Some reflections on the emerging PhD
David Durling
Initiating an interdisciplinary doctoral program: Perspectives from a new program
Michael D. Kroelinger & Jacques R. Giard
Leading the field or behind the times? Doctoral research in typography and graphic communication
Sue Walker
Universities and design research
Vasco A. Branco, João Branco, Carlos Aguiar Pinto & Francisco Providência
Myth or reality: architectural research
Donald Dunbar
Form and structure of the doctorate in design: Prelude to a multilogue
Ken Friedman

Session 4: The relationship between practice and researchDesign integrates several fields with different research traditions and competing methodological claims. The relationship between theory and practice poses a challenging problem for doctoral education in design. Design disciplines such as engineering or computer systems have well-established doctoral traditions. Others, such as industrial design or information design, have hardly begun. The relationship between practice and theory is a challenge in established fields and new areas. This gives rise to debate on what is called ‘practice-based’ or ‘practice-led’ research. Session 4 addressed the general issue of the relationship between practice and theory and the specific issue of ‘practice-based’ research.

Problems and benefits of building a research-based design curriculum
Lorraine Justice
Towards the operationalisation of design research as reflection in and on action and practice
Stephen AR Scrivener
Knowledge and the artefact
Chris Rust, Scott Hawkins, Graham Whiteley, Adrian Wilson & James Roddis
Educating the practice-based researcher: Developing new environments for collaborative and constructive learning
Julian Malins & Carole Gray
Grounding research in practice
Sidney Newton & Tim Marshall
What could art learn from design, what might design learn from art? Some practice-based art doctorates
Beryl Graham
Activity theory in a “trading zone” for design research and practice
Judith Gregory
Design research and the wealth of nations. Reflections on the interaction of design research and national policies of research, innovation and industry
Pekka Korvenmaa
Triad collaboration between school, industry and government for bridging research and practice in design
Kun-Pyo Lee
Research by design
John Redmond
Artifact versus text in design research
Lars-Henrik Stahl
Experiencing architecture: From practice to research
Henrika Ojala
Cross-functional and inter-disciplinary integration for doctoral education in design: Theory and experience
Brynjulf Tellefsen

Monday, December 18, 2006

Theory Building & Research Design

Theory Building & Research Design
Prof. Andrew Van de Ven

Topics Introduction and Overview
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 1.
Notes on Engaged Scholarship in a Changing Field

Developing a Research Proposal
Van de Ven & Delbecq, "The Nominal Group as a Research Instrument…" AJPH, 1972.
Davis & Parker, “Writing the Doctoral Dissertation,” NY: Barron’s, 1997, chapters 2 and 8.
Class Slides and Notes on Developing a Research Proposal.
Slides on Nominal Group Technique

Philosophy of Science Underlying Engaged Scholarship
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 2.

Formulating the Research Problem or Question
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 3
Class Slides on Problem FormulationGrounded Methods of Problem Formulation
Class Slides on Grounded Problem and Theory Building.

Building a Theory
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 4
Class slides on Theory Building
Class slides on theory building, part 2.
Example of a good report by Mary Jo Graham in 2003 class.

Justifying a Theory

Two Modes of Thought: Variance and Process Theories
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 5

Variance Research Designs
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 6

Process Research Designs
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 7
Class slides on process research design

Constructing and Evaluating Measurement Instruments
Van de Ven & Ferry, "Measuring and Assessing Organizations," Chapter 3, 1980
Class slides on constructing and evaluating measures

Evaluating and Improving Research Designs
Class slides on reviewing research designs.

Implementing Research and Problem Solving
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 8.
Class slides on communicating and using research

Writing and Publishing Crafts
class notes on Writing and Publishing Norms

Reviewing and Evaluating Research Proposals
Engaged Scholarship, Chapter 9
Van de Ven class slides

Friday, December 15, 2006

Theory and Practice

Theory and Practice
(Donald Schön and his lifeworld epistemology)
Dr. Martina Maria Keitsch

[PDF] Supporting the creation of Mood Boards: Industrial Design in Mixed ...

[PDF] what is industrial design

[PDF] A Preliminary Study of the Relationship Between Industrial Design ...

[PDF] Relating theory and practice in the design research discourse

Friday, December 08, 2006

Design Research

Design Research

[PDF] Design Research Quarterly 1:1 September 2006 Design Research society

[PDF] Ch 1:

[PDF] Reflections on building an online resource for doctoral studies in ...

Sunday, December 03, 2006

Better By Design

Better By Design
The Creative Continuum
Tracing the trajectory of New Zealand design
A seven-part series identifying many of New Zealand’s historical figures, events and artefacts that deserve the attention of a wider audience.
Enabling enablers to seek new horizons